The life of every collective, every organization begins from the first step taken by the initiative people who decides to start a new business. For Moscow State Technical University “MAMI” (UMech) such a step and, as well, the beginning of complicated but bright history of the University development was establishment of a small vocational school in Moscow, which later turned into one of the leading secondary technical schools in tsarist Russia – Komisarov Technical School (KTS).
Activities of this School had a huge impact on formation and improvement of the Russian professional education. The teaching staff of educational institutions, organized on its basis, including the staff of the UMech, preserved and developed the experience and traditions of the Komisarov Technical School through the post-revolution period.
|Christian Christianovich Meyen||Piotr Ionovich Gubonin|
The KTS history began at the end of 1864 when the members of the First Arbat Department of the Ladies’ charity society for the poor in Moscow an idea was born to establish a small two-year vocational school for children from poor families and orphans in order to teach them tailoring, shoemaking and bookbinding. In September 1865 this school was founded by an engineer Christian Christianovich Meyen (1831-1876), while financial means were provided by a wealthy railway entrepreneur Petr Ionovich Gubonin (1828-1894).
In 1866 the school got the name Komisarov in honor of O. I. Komisarov, who had rescued life of the tsar Alexander II during the attempted assassination.
In 1869, owing to financing by P. I. Gubonin, a new building was constructed for the vocational school in Moscow, in the Blagoveshchensky lane near Tverskaya street, along with an adjacent church dedicated to Alexander Nevsky.
1871, the building of the Komisarov School with adjacent church of St. Alexander Nevsky in the Blagoveshchensky lane in MoscowThe Komisarov School developed rapidly. The number of students grew and in 1867 it was reorganized into a vocational school with a three-year studies term for training in metal and wood processing.
In 1870 the Komisarov School was transformed into a technical school with a five-year studies term, which was then reorganized in 1886 to become a secondary seven-year educational institution.
The Komisarov School developed rapidly. The number of students grew and in 1867 it was reorganized into a vocational school with a three-year studies term for training in metal and wood processing.
In 1870 the Komisarov School was transformed into a technical school with a five-year studies term, which was then reorganized in 1886 to become a secondary seven-year educational institution.
In 1892 new academic buildings were constructed for the Komisarov Technical School, next to the old one, in the Blagoveshchensky lane. By 1902 the KTS had 20 separate buildings with electric lighting from its own power plant. The school possessed the iron foundry and the copper casting workshops, and woodworking shop as well. Almost all buildings of the Komisarov School survived till the present time.
One of the buildings of the Komisarov Technical School, 1892
In 1916 the Tsar Decree awarded to the school the right to be named The Imperial Komisarov Technical School (IKTS).
The level of technical equipment, teaching methods, contents of curriculum and approaches to tutorial process in the Komisarov Technical School exceeded the level of a secondary technical educational institution. In terms of technical equipment it was one of the best in Russia, and due to that training in practical skills was particularly strong there.
Due to its educational activities the Imperial Komisarov Technical School gained a high professional credibility and recognition in Russia. Many prominent scientists and industrialists got their education in the IKTS. The following well-known persons graduated from this School: a prominent scholar of machine-building technology professor of the Moscow Bauman Higher Technical School V. M. Kovan and a prominent scientist and tutor, professor of the same Bauman School M. A. Saverin. The teachers - future professors of MAMI worked many years in the Komisarov School, like Valentin Alexandrovich Alexandrov-Roslavlev, Ivan Vasilievich Gribov, Dmitriy Konstantinovich Karelskikh, the future member of the Academy of Science of the USSR Victor Sergeevich Kulebakin, Associate Professor Michail Grigorievich Tikhmenev and many others.
After the October Revolution, in 1919, the Imperial Komisarov School was transformed into the 1-st Moscow Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College named after M. V. Lomonosov (the Lomonosov College) with five departments: of internal combustion engines, automotive, steam engineering, metal processing and electrical engineering of heavy currents.
To the position of the Chairman of Presidium of the Lomonosov College Ivan Vasilievich Gribov was appointed, who later, in Moscow Auto-Mechanical Institute, became the dean of the Automobile and Tractor Faculty and Head of the Chair “Automobile Maintenance”.
However, conversion into the technical college did not respond to the large potential of the Imperial Komisarov School as a base for training high-skilled industrial specialists. Therefore, the decree of the Board of Glavprofobr at Narkompros of the RSFSR of December 8, 1920, renamed the Lomonosov College to the Practical Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Institute. Practical institutes were engaged in training specialists in separate narrow fields of knowledge. The three-year educational period was comprised of two parts. After finishing each of them the students received certificates of completion with indication of qualification in the chosen narrow profession, like a technician, an engineer, an agronomist, etc.
On January 5, 1922, the decision was taken to reorganize the Moscow Practical Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov in order to make it a higher technical educational institution – Moscow Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov. I. V. Gribov was appointed Rector of the institute.
In 1924 году the Lomonosov Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Institute was renamed and became Moscow Mechanical Engineering Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov.
In 1925 mechanical engineers graduated from the Institute for the first time. There were 45 of them. Many professors of the future MAMI finished this Moscow Mechanical Engineering Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov: F. M. Lomanov (director of MAMI from 1944 to 1946) – in 1926; Professor F. F. Simakov and Doctor of Engineering, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of RSFSR, for many years Head of the Chair “Automobile and Tractor Engines” of MAMI, Head of research sector A. I. Zdrok – in 1929; Professor, Doctor of Engineering, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of RSFSR, for many years Head of the Chair “Automobiles” of MAMI B.S. Falkevich – in 1930; Head of the Chair MiTOMD, Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of RSFSR G. A. Navrotskiy – in 1931 and others.
In 1930, after significant changes, the Moscow Mechanical Engineering Institute named after Mikhail V. Lomonosov received the status of a higher technical educational institution for the sector of automobile and tractor production and was given the name of Moscow Automobile and Tractor Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov.
In May of 1932, on the basis of Moscow Automobile and Tractor Institute named after Mikhail V. Lomonosov and the faculty of motorization and mechanization of the Military Technical Academy of RKKA named after comrade Dzerzhinsky, the Military Academy of Mechanization and Motorization of RKKA (VAMM RKKA) was established. It occupied the training, production and laboratory buildings of the Automobile and Tractor Institute in the Blagoveshchensky lane, and later it was moved to the Moscow region Lefortovo.
In early summer of 1932 the place of VAMM RKKA in training premises of the Moscow Automobile and Tractor Institute named after Mikhail V. Lomonosov was given to the Military Transport Academy of RKKA, which, like VAMM RKKA, got a part of equipment, professors and students. The Institute had been deprived of most of its training facilities. This greatly complicated the educational process in the Lomonosov Institute. In connection with this the Institute was transferred to the premises of the Technical Training Centre at the Moscow automobile plant named after I. V. Stalin.
In the summer of 1932 Moscow Automobile and Tractor Institute named after Mikhail V. Lomonosov got the name of the Moscow Auto-Mechanical Institute named after Mikhail V. Lomonosov (MAMI named after M. V. Lomonosov).
In September, 1936 the All-Union Committee for High School took decision that Moscow Auto-Mechanical Institute named after M. V. Lomonosov becomes an integral part of the Moscow Mechanical and Machine-building Institute and forms a specialized auto-tractor faculty there.
At the auto-tractor faculty of MAMI the Chair “Wheeled vehicles” was headed by Professor E. A. Chudakov, the Chair “Tracked Vehicles” – by Professor D. K. Karelskikh. Most of the teaching staff of the faculty before its organization had worked in MAMI named after M. V. Lomonosov. Later, almost all of them continued working in the Moscow Auto-Mechanical Institute, when it was reestablished by the Decree N ES-154-5 of the Sovnarcom of the USSR on July 3, 1939. In the reestablished MAMI the training was supported by the member of the Academy of Science of the USSR E. A. Chudakov, Professors D. K. Karelskikh, B. A. Ivanov, M. K. Cristi, V. N. Makhov, V. I. Soroko-Novitskiy, F. V. Soloviev, E. L. Lvov, Associate Professors P. N. Aksenov, M. N. Kuniavskiy, L. M. Marienbakh, E. E. Miller, A. P. Tsvetkov, P. M. Riz, V. N. Beliayev, M. G. Tikhmenev, A. S. Kagan, F. F. Simakov, N. V. Inozemtsev and others.
During many years after its reestablishment Moscow Auto-Mechanical Institute was the main sectoral higher education institution in the country which trained high-skilled personnel for enterprises and research facilities of automobile industry.
The students of MAMI work in Student Design Bureau
Training in the laboratory of Technology of mechanical engineering
In late 1992 the Moscow Auto-Mechanical Institute was transformed into the Moscow State Academy of Automotive and Tractor Engineering.
On September 15, 1997 the order of the Minister of General and Professional Education of RF N 1880 renamed the Moscow State Academy of Automotive and Tractor Engineering to Moscow State Technical University "MAMI".
By the order of the Education Ministry dated by 28.12.2011, N 2898, Moscow State Technical University “MAMI” (MSTU “MAMI”) and the Moscow State University of Environmental Engineering (MSUEE) were reorganized by means of integration of the MGUIE into the MGTU “MAMI”.
The Moscow State University of Environmental Engineering was founded in 1931 on the basis of the Mechanical faculty of the Moscow Chemical Technology Institute named after Dmitriy I. Mendeleev as the Moscow Institute of Chemical Engineering. For many years it remained the oldest and one of the leading higher education institutions in Russia, training engineers and researchers, conducting fundamental and applied research, defining the technical policy for creation of environmentally clean production in the chemical, petrochemical, micro-biological and other sectors of industry.
The pride of the MIKhM-MSUIE in various years were the members of the Academy of Science of the USSR: I. I. Artobolevskiy (Head of the Chair of Machines and Mechanisms Theory); the Nobel Prize winner and the Member of the Royal Scientific Society of the UK P. L. Kapitsa (Head of the Chair of mechanical equipment of turbooxigen plants). It was they who laid the basis for training mechanical engineers in the institute, combining in-depth knowledge of fundamental sciences with their practical application to creation of equipment and technology in chemical and related industries.
In 1976 the MIKhM was awarded the order of Labor Red Banner for the contribution of the institute staff to training of high-skilled engineering personnel and conducting research for the chemical sector of the country.
The MSUIE has been recognized by the international research community as an educational and scientific center. Owing to this it became possible to establish direct contacts with the United Nations Organization in the field of education, science and culture (the International Chair of UNESCO was opened in the Institute), as well as links with prominent research and industrial organizations and universities in Russia, Germany, China, Italy, UK, Poland, Kazakhstan, Lithuania.
Classes and Laboratories Building of the MIHM with an assembly hall
In the students’ reading room of the MIHM. Photo of 1970s.
In April of 2012 the united university got the name of “the Federal State Budget Educational Institution for Higher Professional Education “The Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI)”. According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation N 1074 of December 20, 2012 Moscow State Open University named after Viktor S. Chernomyrdin, and the Moscow State Part-time Metallurgy Institute were reorganized by means of integration in the Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI).
The Moscow State Open University, building 1
Moscow State Open University (MSOU) is the successor to the Moscow City People’s Open University of A. L. Shaniavskiy. It began its history in 1932, when the order of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry of the USSR of December 13, 1932, N 907, was issued, creating the All-Union Distance-Learning Institute of Technical Education (VZITO) on the basis of the Polytechnic School, integrating ten regional distance-learning institutes.
In 1935, by the order of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry of March 28, 1935, N 26-27, the All-Union Distance-Learning Institute of Technical Education got a new name of the All-Union Distance-Learning Industrial Institute (VZII).
In 1947 the decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of October 14, 1947, N 1546r, changed the name of the All-Inion Distance-Learning Industrial Institute for the All-Union Distance-Learning Polytechnic Institute (VZPI).
By the decree of Presidium of Supreme Council of the USSR of August 20, 1982, VZPI was awarded the order of the Labor Red Banner.
In 1992, by the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of February 2, 1992, N 101, the All-Union Distance-Learning Polytechnic Institute was transformed into Moscow State Open University (MSOU).
In 2007 the staff of Moscow State Open University celebrated the 75th anniversary.
Moscow State Part-time Metallurgical University was established by decree of the Council of the People’s Commissars of the USSR of April 17, 1930, as the Moscow Factory-Technical Institute “Sickle and Hammer”, basing on Moscow Metallurgical Plant “Sickle and Hammer”.
The facade of the building of MVMI
In 1937 the Institute, along with other metallurgical institutes, was transferred from under the authority of Narkomtiazhprom of the USSR to the jurisdiction of the Main Directorate of Educational Institutions of the People’s Commissariat of Ferrous Metallurgy. In 1939 the All-Union Committee for Higher School of the SNK of USSR approved the Statutes of the institute with a new name – “Moscow Part-time Metallurgy Institute” (MVMI).
In the summer of 1946 Moscow Part-time Metallurgy Institute, as well as other sectoral institutes, was transferred from jurisdiction of the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR to the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR.
The number of students in the pre-war and war years was not high, but by 1946 the institute issued 469 engineers, who had the practical work experience.
In the early 1960s the country government took decision to increase the role and the scaling of education for persons who continued working. Due to that the plans of admissions to the evening-studies and distance-learning departments of institutes grew, in many institutes the evening-studies and distance-learning departments were opened.
This introduced changes in the contents of training. The set of the main approaches and methods of teaching evening-school students had been defined and got the name “MVMI System”. Its ideology author was Associate Professor V. A. Kudrin, who had been appointed Rector of MVMI in 1961.
Director of the institute VNIIMETMASH, the Member of the USSR Academy of Science Professor A. I. Tselikov (left)
and Rector of MVMI Professor V. A. Kudrin
MVMI students at the lecture on crystallography
In 1981, the year of its 50th anniversary, MVMI was awarded the order of the Labor Red Banner for the merits in training high-qualification specialists for the national economy and scientific research.
In the 90s training of engineers along a number of new specialties was arranged, including the technology of artistic metal processing, environment protection, resources preservation, etc.
In 1995, by the order of the State Committee for High School of the Ministry of Science, High School and Technological Policy of the Russian Federation, the institute was renamed as Moscow State Part-time Metallurgy Institute (MGVMI).
Enterprises were in need for high-skilled workers and engineers. The form of training, realized in MGVMI – part-time, evening-studies, proved to be an efficient method to train specialists with higher education for a particular enterprise.
In 2006 the institute celebrated its 75th anniversary. To mark this date, the teaching staff of the institute published over fifty scientific and technical articles in journals of the metallurgical and engineering sectors (“The Steel”, “The Metallurgist”, “The Rolling”, “The Refractories”, “The Automated Welding”, “The Electrical Metallurgy” and others).
According to the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of December 30, 2014, N 1649, Moscow State Industrial University (the former Factory-Institute) was integrated in the Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI).
The building of the Automotive College at the plant ZIL, where the Factory-Institute, attached to ZIL, began its work
Moscow State Industrial University was historically deeply connected with the MAMI. It can be reminded that establishment of the factory-institute at the plant ZIL had been prepared by opening of the branch of the evening-studies auto-mechanical institute, which got the name “AMI-AMO”, on February 1, 1931. However, then the Higher Council of National Economy did not approve officially the establishment of the factory-institute, attached to AMO.
In 1959 “the Law about strengthening of connections of school with life and further development of the national education system” was adopted, and on December 30, 1959, on the basis of this Law, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution “On organization of factory-institutes, as well as industrial enterprises and shops at higher education institutions”. The order of the acting Minister of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the RSFSR N. F. Krasnov of February 8, 1960, N 107, defined the date for opening factory-institutes – March 1, 1960, and the date for beginning of studies – September 1, 1960. By that time the following institutions functioned at the Moscow Automotive Plant: MAMI branch, the evening-studies department of MEI, the branch of VZMI and groups of economic knowledge improvement, attached to the Engineering and Economic Institute named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze.
Giving the oath and handling of certificates of SSO fighters at the monument “The Cannon”
In December 1959 the resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR N 1425 was issued, stipulating establishment of a higher education institution at the plant ZIL – the factory-institute on the basis of MAMI branch. In accordance with this resolution the factory-institute was organized by the order of the Minister of MV and SSO of the RSFSR of February 8, 1960, N 107. MAMI was instructed to render required assistance to the factory-institute during its first years.
The first Rector of the Factory-Institute at ZIL was Alexander Pavlovich Lyzo, who was appointed to this position in April of 1960. Together with him the experienced teaching staff came from MAMI: V. O. Schmidt, M. S. Andreeva, V. E. Schneider, V. O. Gordon, V. A. Petrov, I. A. Chernyshov, P. I. Terekhov, A. Ya. Slutskin, G. M. Orlov, N. D. Kabelevskaya.
One of the first teachers of the Factory-Institute at ZIL and the first Dean of AF, Doctor of Engineering, Professor Vladimir O. Schmidt with the students of the Chair of Automobiles and Engines
In February 1966, in connection with arrangement of the required base in the institute, the Factory-Institute was recognized as a self-managed entity by the order of the Minister of MV and SSO.
In 1988 the Factory-Institute at ZIL was renamed as Moscow Automobile-Construction Institute – MASI (VTUZ-ZIL).
In 1996 MASI got a university status and a new name - Moscow State Industrial University (MSIU).
In 2002 MSIU became one of the leaders as per the scale and scope of using distant-learning technologies.
In 2010 MSIU celebrated its 50-years jubilee, and in late 2014 returned to its Almamater.
In accordance with the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia of March 21, 2016, the Moscow Polytechnic University has been created as a result of reorganization in the form of merging the UMech (MAMI) and the Moscow State University of Printing Arts named after Ivan Fedorov (MGUP). Andrey Nikolaenko (former Rector of MAMI) has been appointed Rector of Moscow Polytechnic University. Since December 2017 Vladimir Miklushevskii became President of Moscow Poly.
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